LibGuides: Chicago B: Author-Date Style: Images & tables (2023)

Figures, tables, art works,maps, and other images

Chicago style uses the terminology 'illustrations' or 'figures' when discussing images presented separately from the run of text in sources. 'Figures' includes the following image types:

  • Charts orGraphs
  • Maps (included in sources, see the separate Maps tab for citing the standalone maps)
  • Paintings, drawings, photographs,or other art works (included in sources, see the separate Art works tab for citing the standalone art works)

Information about standalone maps, paintings, photographs, sculptures, or other works of art can usually be presented in the text rather than in a reference list. If a reference list entry is needed, see the tabs above for Maps and Art works for instructions.

Note that tables are a separate designation with differing rules. See the Tables tab above for more information.

General rules: citing vs using images

Citing illustrations

  • When citing (not reprinting) an illustrationfrom a book, article or other sources, cite the source first, then provide the page number where the illustration is located in text citation, preceding the figure number, with a comma between them, e.g. ... (Smith 2019, 123, fig. 3)
  • When citing illustrations, the abbreviation fig. may be used for figure, but table, map, plate, and other illustration forms are spelled out.
  • If the source is available online, add the DOI or URL to the end of the citation.

In-text citation example:

... (Anderson 2018, fig. 8.1)...

Reference list entry example:

Anderson, Catherine. 2018. Essentials of Linguistics. McMaster University. https://ecampusontario.pressbooks.pub/essentialsoflinguistics/.

Using (reprinting or adapting) illustrations

  • Figures and tables taken from other sources require credit lines.A credit line is a brief statement of the source of an illustration.In addition to author, title, publication details, and copyright statement, the credit line should include any page or figure number.A credit line usually appears at the end of a caption of a figure, or in a source note of a table.
  • Figures and tables must be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc) in the order in which they appear within the text, i.e. the first figure is labeled "Figure 1", the second "Figure 2", and so on.
  • Refer to each figure or table in text by theirnumber, e.g. figure 1, table 4, etc.
  • If you are WRITING FOR PUBLICATION (for a journal, conference paper, thesis, website, etc) you must obtain written permission from the copyright owner to include the figure or table in your work, and state the permission in the sourcecitationas 'Reprinted with permission from ...'
  • Copyright holdermay be the publisher,author/s, artists or their children, or the museums.
  • While students don't usually require publisher permission to include figures or tables in assignments, you should still include the credit line with copyright statement.
  • If the work being credited is listed in the reference list, only a shortened form needs appear in the credit line.

Citing Figures

Note: Figures takenfrom other sourcesrequire source citations and credit lines. See theUsing Figures taken from other sourcesbelow for more details.

When citing (not reprinting) a figure from a book, article or other sources, cite the source as usual and add the page number and figure number in the text citation.

The following is the general formatof a reference to a figure in abook.If the source is available online, add the DOI or URL to the end of the citation.

In-text citation: format and example

... (Author's Last NameYear of Publication, Page no, Figure No) ...

... (Anderson 2018, fig. 8.1)...

Reference list entry: format and example

First Author'sLast Names, First Name, Other Author's First and Last Names.Year.Book Title: Subtitle.Edition.Place of Publication:Publisher.DOI or URL.

Anderson, Catherine. 2018.Essentials of Linguistics. McMaster University. https://ecampusontario.pressbooks.pub/essentialsoflinguistics/.

Using figures taken from other sources

If you are including a figurefrom another source in your assignment, you need provide the source citation and credit lines with the figure. If the work being credited is listed in the reference list, only a shortened form needs appear in the credit line, e.g. Reprinted from Doyle andMcCutcheon (2015, chap. 1.4).

  • Copy the figure exactly as found in the original source, unless you need toadapt it.
  • Number figures consecutively in Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc) as they appear in your assignment
  • Acknowledge the original source following the caption directly underneath the figure.
  • Captions should be capitalized in sentence style
  • In addition to author, title, publication details, and copyright date by copyright holder, the credit line should include any page or figurenumber.
  • Copyright holdermay be the publisher or the author/s
  • While students don't usually require publisher permission to include figures in assignments, you should still include the copyright statement.

The following is an example of reprinting a figure fromabook.For reusingfiguresfrom othersources, follow the citation pattern for that source.

LibGuides: Chicago B: Author-Date Style: Images & tables (1)

Figure 1. Surgical mask (left) and N95 mask (right). Reprinted fromGlynda Rees Doyle and Jodie Anita McCutcheon, Clinical Procedures for Safer Patient Care (BCcampus, 2015), chap. 1.4, https://opentextbc.ca/clinicalskills/. Copyright 2015by British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT) (Creative Commons).

[ThiseBookdoes not use page numbers so the chapter information has been included instead. This willassist with locating the original figure]

Adapting or changing the figure?

In the caption under the figure change the word 'Reprinted from' to 'Adapted from' to show that you have changed the original (even in a small way).

Reproduction note:

The figureabove, reprinted from Clinical Procedures for Safer Patient Care,hasbeen reproduced under the Creative Commons License. This notice is separate from the figureso as not to confuse the referencing in the figure caption.

Clinical Procedures for Safer Patient Care by GlyndaRees Doyle and Jodie Anita McCutcheon:Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

Citing Maps

  • Maps takenfrom other sources as illustrations require captions and credit lines. See details under theFigures taken from other sourcesvia the Figures tab above.

Information about maps can usually be presented in the text rather than in a reference list, e.g.the Google Earth satellite view of Newcastleaccessed in 2018shows...

If a reference list entry is needed, list the cartographer (if known) and the title of the map (in italics) or a description, followed by the scale and size (if known) and publication details or location of the map. Undated maps consulted online should include an access or revision date.

The following is the general formatand examples of citing a map from a book, a Google map, and an online historical map.

In-text citation: format and example

... (Cartographer's Last NameYear of Publication) ...

... (Champlain[1612] 2007, fig.51.3) ...

... (US Geological Survey [1909]1951) ...

Reference list entry: format and example

Cartographer'sLast Name, First Name.Year of Map.Map Title: Subtitle.scale and size.Publication Details.Location of Map.URL.

Champlain,Samuel de, cartographer. (1612) 2007.Carte geographique de la Nouvelle Franse.43 × 76 cm. In The History of Cartography, vol. 3, Cartography in the European Renaissance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Satellite view of Newcastle. Google Earth. accessed July30, 2018. https://www.google.com/maps/@-32.9546526,151.6396797,36081m/data=!3m1!1e3!

US Geological Survey. (1909) 1951(reprint).California: Yosemite Quadrangle.30-minute series quadrangle, 1:125,000 scale. National Map, Historic Topographic Map Collection. https://www.usgs.gov/media/images/scan-1909-usgs-quadrangle-yosemite-california-area-include-el-capitan-usgs-historic.

Art works

Information about paintings, photographs, lithographs,sculptures, or other works of art can usually be presented in the text rather than in a reference list. If a reference list entry is needed, list the artist, a title (in italics), and a date of creation or completion, followed by information about the medium and the location of the work. For works consulted online, add a URL.

An exhibition catalogor brochure is often published as a book and is treated as such.

Artworks takenfrom other sources as illustrations require captions and credit lines.See details under theFigures taken from other sourcesvia theFigures - citing or reprintingtab above.

The following is the general formatof a reference to an art work.

In-text citation: format and example

... (Artist'sLast NameYear of Publication) ...

... (Picasso 1942) ...

... (Dalí1931) ...

Reference list entry: format and example

Artist'sLast Names, First Name.Year.Title.Medium and other information.Locationof work.URL.

Dalí, Salvador. 1931.The Persistence of Memory.Oil on canvas, 9½ × 13″ (24.1 × 33 cm). Museum of Modern Art, New York. http://www.moma.org/collection/works/79018.

Picasso, Pablo. 1942.Bull’s Head. Bicycle saddle and handlebars, 33.5 × 43.5 × 19 cm. Musée Picasso Paris.

CitingTables

  • Tables taken from other sources require source notes and credit lines. See theTables taken from other sourcesbelow for more details.

When citing (not reprinting) a tablefrom a book, an article or other sources, provide the page number where thetable is located in text citation, preceding the table number, with a comma between them.

The following is the general formatof a reference to a table ina book.For tables from othersources, follow the pattern for that source and add thepage and table numberin the in-text citationasrequired. If the source is available online, add the DOI or URL to the end of citation in the reference list.

In-text citation: format and example

... (Author'sLast Name/sYear of Publication, page number, table number) ...

... (Chavas, Hummels, and Wright 2014, 167, table 4.4) ...

Reference list entry: format and example (i.e. cite the source normally)

First Author'sLast Names, First Name, Other Author's First and Last Names.Year.Book Title: Subtitle.edition.Place of Publication:Publisher.

Chavas, Jean-Paul, David Hummels, and Brian D. Wright, eds. 2014.The Economics of Food Price Volatility. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Tables taken from othersources

If you are including a table from another source within an assignment, you need provide the source notes and credit lines with the table. If the work being credited is listed in the reference list, only a shortened form needs appear in the credit line.

  • Copy the table exactly as found in the original source, unless you need to adapt it (see info below).
  • The table number,title and description go above the table.
  • Acknowledge the original source within a source note included directly underneath the table.
  • Begin with the word 'Source:' or Sources:', in italics, followed by a colon, then followed by:
    • 'Reprinted from' if you copy the table exactly as found in the original source; or
    • 'Adapted from' if you have adapted or changed the table; or
    • 'Data from' if you have used the data from another source in your own table.
  • If you are WRITING FOR PUBLICATION (for a journal, conference paper, thesis, website, etc) you must obtain written permission from the copyright owner to reuse the table in your work, and state the permission in the source note as: Source: Reprinted with permission from ...
  • In addition to author, title, publication details, and copyright date by copyright holder, the credit line should include any page or table number.
  • Copyright holdermay be the publisher or the author/s
  • While students don't usually require publisher permission to include tables in assignments, you should still include the copyright statement.

The following is an example of reprinting a tablefromabook.For reusingtablesfrom othersources, follow the citation pattern for that source.

Table 1.Nursing Interventions for the Stages of Dying

LibGuides: Chicago B: Author-Date Style: Images & tables (2)

Source:Reprinted fromSusan E.Lowey,Nursing Care at the End of Life(Geneseo, NY: Open SUNY Textbooks, 2015), table 3.1,http://pressbooks.opensuny.org/nursingcare. Copyright 2015 by Susan E. Lowey (Creative Commons).

Reproduction note:

The tableabove, reprinted fromNursing Care at the End of Lifehasbeen reproduced under theCreative Commons License. This notice is separate from the tableso as not to confuse the referencing in the table notes.

Nursing Care at the End of Life by Susan. E. Lowey:Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

Using figures and tables from other sources when writing for publication

If you are including a figure or table you found in another source, and you are WRITING FOR PUBLICATION (for a journal, conference paper, thesis, website, etc) you must:

  • Obtain written permission from the copyright owner to include the figure or table in your work
  • Copy the figure or table exactly as found in the original source, unless you need toadapt it
  • Acknowledge the original source within the figure caption or table note as 'Reprinted with permission from...'
  • This is the case even if you change or adapt something in the figure or table, use 'Adapted with permission from' if applicable.
  • If the work being credited is listed in the reference list, only a shortened form needs appear in the credit line.

Figure example taken from a journal article:

An example is shown below using the template for a figure from a journal article. The pattern follows the style of caption for your image source, plusa notice of permission, the source citation, andthe copyright statement.

For figures from othersources, follow thepattern for the source and add the required notice of permission and copyright statement.

Note that If the work being credited is included in the reference list, only a shortened form needs appear in the credit line.


LibGuides: Chicago B: Author-Date Style: Images & tables (3)

Figure 1. The clinical reasoning process with descriptors. Reprinted with permission from TracyLevett-Jones, et al.,“The Five Rights of Clinical Reasoning: An Educational Model to Enhance Nursing Students' Ability to Identify and Manage Clinically 'At Risk' Patients,”Nurse Education Today30, no. 6 (August 2010): 158.Copyright 2010 by Elsevier.

Table example taken from a journal article:

An example is shown below using the template for a table from a journal article. The pattern follows the style of note for your image source, plus a notice of permission after the copyright statement: "Copyright 2010 by Elsevier. Reprinted with permission.".

For tables from other sources, follow the pattern for that source and add the required notice of permission and copyright statement.

Note that if the work being credited is included in the reference list, only a shortened form needs appear in the credit line.

Table 1.The Difference Between Cue Collection in Experienced and Novice Nurses

LibGuides: Chicago B: Author-Date Style: Images & tables (4)
Source: Reprinted with permission fromTracyLevett-Jones, et al.,“TheFive Rights of Clinical Reasoning: An Educational Model to Enhance Nursing Students' Ability to Identify and Manage Clinically 'At Risk' Patients,”Nurse Education Today30, no. 6(August 2010): 518.Copyright 2010 by Elsevier.

Adapting or changing the figure or table?

In the caption under the figure (or source note under the table) change the wording 'Reprinted with permission from' to 'Adapted with permission from' to show that you have changed the original (even in a small way).

Reproduction note:

The figure and tableabove, reprinted fromNurse Education Today, have been reproduced with permission. This notice is separate from the figure and table so as not to confuse the referencing in the figure caption and table note.

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